Pakistan displays some of Asia’s most magnificent landscapes as it stretches from Arabian Sea, its southern border, to some of the world’s most spectacular mountain ranges in the north. Pakistan is also home sites that date back to the world’s earliest settlements rivaling those of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Located in South Asia, Pakistan shares an eastern border with India and a north-eastern border with China, Iran makes up the country’s south-west border, and Afghanistan runs along its western and northern edge. Iran makes up the country’s south-west border, and Afghanistan runs along its western and northern edge.
Pakistan emerged as an independent country on 14 August 1947, but it has a history of over five thousand years. The land of Pakistan has been a cradle of ancient civilizations. With well-developed cities, Indus Valley Civilization was contemporary of the Nile, Mesopotamian and Yellow River civilizations.
Over two thousand years ago, Gandhara Buddhist Civilization flourished in northern Pakistan, with Taxila as a seat of Buddhist learning.
Famous Chinese scholars, including Xuan Zang, had traveled to Taxila to study the Buddhist scriptures. These travels are celebrated in the famous Chinese novel Xi You Ji (Journey to the West).